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Once again, I’d like to chat about Property Rights… it’s one of my pet peeves…. I’m no expert… but it is important for people to know what rights they have when they purchase a property.
Ownership is the highest form of control one can exercise over any type of property, including intellectual property. Ownership in fact consists of a bundle of many rights that together comprise the concept of being an owner. For example, you can count on having the right to possess the property, use it, enjoy the property, mortgage it and to transfer or sell the ownership.
There are a variety of other rights- some that can be divided up by the owner and may result in a variety of different parties deriving particular rights in specified circumstances. Any number of variations that subdivide the bundle of owner rights are possible.
Real Estate value considers the combination of the tangible and intangible attributes of land, improvements and the rights that are or are not included.
When you purchase a property, ask which rights are included…. And they’re not just limited to the following list:
Shoreline & Road Allowance:
Most waterfront property in Ontario has a standard 66-foot Shoreline Reservation, unless otherwise transferred to the Deed. This part of the property is owned and controlled by the Ministry of Natural Resources. Usually, no permanent development or shoreline development is allowed on this reservation. In many cases the shoreline reservation may be purchased from the Ministry of Natural Resources. The purpose of a Shoreline Reservation is to preserve the natural habitats and environments of aquatic creatures, birds and plants.
If riparian rights are included it means that the owner of lands on the banks of watercourses are entitled to take advantageous use of the water on, under or adjacent to the land- including the right to acquire accretions (Slow addition to land by deposition of water-borne sediment), wharf slips and to fish there on.
Something outside of the property that belongs to the property and adjoins thereto and adds a greater enjoyment of the property- a right of way is a good example of this.
Mineral Rights & Surface Rights:
There are parcels of land in Ontario where landowners may own the surface rights but not the mineral rights in, on or below their land. The Ontario Mining Act provides a statutory right to stake mining claims on Crown mineral rights and to conduct assessment work on the mining claims even if the surface rights are privately owned.
Simply put, mining (mineral) rights are the rights to the minerals located in, on or under the land. Surface rights refer to any right of land that is not mining rights. The deeded property owner will have the legal right to walk & enjoy the surface of the property and to build or construct a dwelling on the surface of the property- subject to local regulations, of course.
Mineral Rights include all precious metals, ores, sand & gravel. When a Mining Company, Prospector or other Individual owns the mineral rights, they do not need the owner's permission to go on the property and do exploration work. The Mining Company, Prospector or other individual only needs to inform you in writing the day before of their intent to perform work.
If the deed says “All Mining Rights are Included” it means that the Property Owner owns the minerals above & below the surface.
This short video about Mineral Rights is well worth watching:
Timber rights reserved means that all the timber (trees) standing on the property are not included with the property. These trees are reserved to the Provincial Government- or to an individual. This includes all tree species except Pine trees. Although the Government owns the trees they do require the permission of the property owner to harvest those trees. If the property owner wishes to harvest the trees on the parcel, the owner must call the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources District Office for further details. A stumpage fee is owed to the Ministry of Natural Resources when harvested.
When timber rights are included, the property owner owns the trees- except the Pine- unless the deed states, “all pine rights are included”.
Pine trees are reserved to the Crown- meaning that all Pine trees standing on Ontario property are owned by the Provincial Government. The property owner does not own these trees. To harvest Pine trees you must contact the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The Pine rights can be purchased from the Government.
Here are a couple of sites that may be of interest:
The Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program (CLTIP) is designed to recognize, encourage and support the long-term private stewardship of Ontario's provincially significant conservation lands by providing property tax relief to those landowners who agree to protect the natural heritage values of their property.
Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program (CLTIP)
The Ontario Landowners Association appears to be in favour of having the
Government cease the violation of property rights. Signs - seen all over the Ontario countryside, posted on farm gates, fences, and in fields- particularly in Eastern Ontario - shout: “This is our land. STOP. BACK OFF GOVERNMENT”. Their website is
what about water access without ownership when a hiway seperates your property from the lake. If there was a dock there already, why can’t I use it?
Note from Jody: Generally you can use the dock, best to check with your township and MNR, to be absolutely certain about any local by-laws.
What is the easiest way (on my computer) to find out who owns the mineral rights to my property? I own 3 lots(133 acres) in northern ontario and I think the mineral rights holder has let his ownership lapse because he has not spent any required time on the lots in the past 5 years! I would like to take any necessary steps to purchase the mineral rights. How do I find out who the holder is?,and how do I formally purchase these rights?
Kevin, search claimaps, answers can be found through MNDM for mining rights.pin
What happens when the gov. re-assess the riparian zone (say lake Huron water levels drop and expose 20m of new beach), where does the ownership of this “new land” lie? I would think it would go to those who own the land directly adjacent to the “new land"? Any information would be appreciated.
Hi Andrew: Andrew, you’re correct under the right circumstances although there is no reason for the gov’t to do anything for this to happen. Jody
I am considering purchasing a parcel of waterfront property. Years ago, there was a dam built at the end of the lake. 9 acres of deeded property was lost underwater as a result. The current owner claims that he’s allowed to do any work such as removal of some rocks on the shore and to some extent in the water since his property line is in the water. Is this true?
Mark, you could be right but not if there were flooding rights on the lake.
And everyone else who reads this 3 year old post but still has unanswered questions, many of them are easily answered; by your local surveyor.
Mark, you could be right but not if there were flooding rights on the lake.
And everyone else who reads this 3 year old post but still has unanswered questions, many of them are easily answered; by your local surveyor.
Note from Jody: Great advice, Gord. I have to tell you, I have answered this question, privately. I have heard of property where the survey line is now out in the middle of the lake. In that case, the owners were told they didn’t own the water, but owned the land under it.
what year did this 66ft distance come into law?
Hi Dale: This dates back to the original survey of the province, by the colonial government, in the 1800s.
Question…I have a friend who bought a parcel of land 5 yrs ago. He has recently been evicted from it given 2 months to remove his house and shed he build because land owner found out that he wasn’t able to severe it with the bank. He has purchase receipt and receipts showing he paid property taxes for past 5 yrs…..What are his rights
Gina… this is one for the lawyers, for sure!
I have purchased a waterfront property in northern Ontario (Kirkland area), which the water front itself extends past my lot and goes in front of two other peoples properties to my right and extends in front of another one to my left. can I stop them from continuously crossing over my property, setting fire pits, tents or placing waterlines across.
Hi Leo: my kneejerk response is that you would have to gate it off. I think you’d be best to speak to your lawyer about this one, too!
We own the waterfront of our neighbours cottage there is no shoreline reserve they harrass and use this property we pay mortgsge and taxes for had to be bought as parcel to acquire our waterfront they won’t buy from us what can we do to keep them off this property plus their waterlines its large 80 x 75 feet
Note from Jody:
You would have to gate it off. Talk to you lawyer about their waterline… a lot of it will have to do with how long it’s been there.
My husband and myself purchased a home on lake simcoe and were told by both our realtor and selling realtor that we had “deeded beach rights"? On closing day we found out that we indeed did not. Our lawyer told us that had to be written in our agreement (we did not know this). There is a walkway that neighbours use and we use however we do not have deeded beach rights? Or do we? If we decide to sell can we sell with deeded beach rights the same that the listing agent did? And is our home worth more money with/without the deeded beach rights?
Theresa…. how awful. Yes, of course a property with deeded beach rights is worth more than one without… I think you need to speak to your lawyer. Without knowing all of the details, it’s difficult to comment, but it sounds like misrepresentation on the part of the Sellers and also… maybe some negligence on the part of your realtor. YOU MUST DISCLOSE the fact that there are not deeded beach rights, should you decide to sell… unless, of course, you somehow secure rights in the meantime.
I recently purchased 5 acres in niagara region it was declared as partial wetlands and borders a manmade lake on west side owned by nieghbour.I have recieved a letter from mnr ontario staing that it is not wetlands because I questioned my first land assessment so I am fine with that.I want to knoe what my rights are regarding the lake on my west side my property starts about 3ft away from the lake and merges into it part way along the shore line my neighbour has decided to build up beside us with fill changing the gradient of his property towards the lake and us and he intends to fill the lake beside us so as he says he can access his llake without being on our land.Can he do this?Where my land toucheds the lake do I have any rights to the water or the lake.
Jim, you need to go speak to the municipality. Find out if there has been any study done on the potential risk of his plan and also, if he’s gotten permits. You might be wise to speak to a lawyer!
My wife and I are considering purchasing property in E-NE Ontario in the near future. Is it possible to buy acreage and clear area to build a farm using the existing timber, minerals (stone for walls and the like mainly but I wouldn’t toss a shiny nugget out if I found it.) and use of the water on or under the land?
Does the Crown reserve the right to deed or sell rights to land I purchase or is it possible to secure all of the land use rights with the purchase?
Hi Scott, every township has different rules and regulations. A lawyer can advise you on whether or not the mineral and timber rights are owned by someone else or if they’re included in your bundle of rights.
Looking to buy a piece of property in Northern Ontario. There is a
“Transfer of Flooding Rights” registered on the title. What does this mean.
Hi Seymour, Flooding rights have to do with a property that backs up water on another property. It sounds like an adjacent property owner (or maybe the township) may have the right to cause flooding to that property. Time to call a lawyer!!
25 years ago I provided deeded right of way across my land to neighbouring land locked summer cottages (3).
It was with the understanding the cottages would be summer use only and they are zoned Limited Service Residential. Two of the cottages have since changed ownership and they want year round access (I do not plow the l/2 km. laneway leading to the cottages in the winter.) Can I be forced to allow them winter access
other than by snowmobile? I am of the opinion they are not allowed to disturb any surface materials, which should include snow. Thanks for your response.
Hi Bill… have you given deeded access to these cottagers? If so, that may pose somewhat of an issue. Many landowners limit access by installing a locked gate but giving specific people a key. This means that they can’t gain unlimited access by virtue of continued use of the property. I don’t believe that you can be forced to provide year round access to these people, nor should you be responsible for snow removal! Of course, a lawyer will be able to give you the best advice, but I think that you need to consider a gate.
I own a small Island (cottage) property in ontario.
In the fall lots of cottagers from the mainland tow their docks over to the protected side of my island and tie them up for the winter.
They do not ask for permission, nor do they normally leave any indication as to who they are.
This year one group of mystery docks has a sign on it advertising winter storage of docks.
I think its pretty nervy of someone to take money from a cottager for storing their dock and then store it on my property without my permission.
It has been mentioned to me that these people may have a right to store their docks on my property because of the 66 foot road allowance, so they are not actually encroaching on my property.
What rights have I with respect to people storing their docks on my island property?
I very much look forward to your
Wow. I think it’s pretty nervy, too!
You need to contact your lawyer to find out if there is a shore/road allowance in effect at your property… and get some advice. I would also check with the local municipal office to find out if this sort of enterprise is permitted at the site.
It doesn’t sound kosher to me.
We have owned 300 acres south of Thunder Bay for 22 years. When first bought, our lawyers realized we didn’t have mineral/surface rights(our property is surveyed as a mining location) and we went through the process of obtaini ownership. We now find ourselves wanting to cut timber on our property and are being told by the MNR that we don’t have timber rights to our 300 acres. Shouldn’t our lawyers have noticed this at our time of purchase? There is talk that we are deemed a ‘nature reserve’ but we have never been told that as the owners of this property. Of course this is happening just before the holidays & the MNR is off until Jan 3, so the person we should contact is on holidays. We are livid that we have been told we don’t own our trees. Thank you for your time & our venue, Jen Evans
Hi Jen, I can understand why you would be upset about this… but you would have to ask your lawyer specifically about timber rights.
Hi Jay & Jen:
Unfortunately, 22 years ago the regulations surrounding the purchase and sale of property were very different and lawyers seldom conducted searches that included mineral/surface/mining/timber and other special rights… also, even if you have mining rights, I understand that you have to stake the claim and work the claim according to regulation, in order to keep it current. You would have to obtain a prospecting license in order to do this. In addition- If you are hearing rumblings that this property could be turned into a “nature reserve", you need to get some legal advice!
We bought property 5 years ago hrs to our closing our lawyer told us that the property we are buying with a house on it for 14 years has mineral rights to it what does this mean and can I get it lifted we were pretty much sitting in driveway with u hauls full.
Tina… call your lawyer. You need to find out if the mining claim is active and who owns the mineral rights. I have to tell you, it’s not uncommon to have someone own the mineral rights and it can be messy. Get some legal advice.
I am a residential property owner. The City of Hamilton is collecting the storm water run off from 22 acres of residential properties and allowing it to flow through my property. I do not have an easement on my property nor have I given the City permission to use my property to drain this storm water run off. Does the city have the right to do this? What are my property rights as a property owner?
Wow Mike… you need to check with your lawyer… they may have the right to take necessary measures during what they consider an emergency!
Around 1950 the government changed ownership of the beaches in Ont.. to the low water mark. does the ownership revert to the ownership of the upland adjactant?
You may find that the low watermark is still underwater… to be certain there would need to be a current survey, which would likely be costly!
I own 100 acres of vacant waterfront land but not timber and mineral rights. They are owned privately. I own the property and the surface rights. Timber owner wants to log the property. I have seen badly logged properties, much to my horror. Can I insist that the logger use Ministry guidelines to log my property, are there any other standards? Can I force him to go into a slash management agreement with me so that he must use a chipper and not make a mess on the surface and leave branches, tree tops (slash) and bits of logs strewn all over the place? Can I control his access and exit for I have several entrances? Does he need my written permission to go on my property. Can I control or limit the time of harvest so he does not create major ruts on existing roads and trails? How do I find a lawyer who understands this process to act on my behalf?
Timber and mineral rights have some serious implications. It’s kind of scary, last I heard they only need to provide you with written notice of their intentions- and that can be put in the windshield of your vehicle at the moment they arrive to start work! There are rules and regulations that these folks have to follow… but it depends on the nature of their licensing, etc. Check around locally, many communities have organized groups to deal with these issues and you’re likely better off with a local lawyer. It might be wise to contact FOCA they represent cottage associations: (705) 749-3622.
In 2006 we purchased a property that was severed from a camp. The original owner applied for the severance stating that the camp would be closed and used for residential/recreation. After we purchased, the owner kept his camp going on the piece of property he retained. Secondly, the driveway was divided into 5 pieces and we have ownership of 3 of these pieces. The owner has sold his property and now an even bigger camp operation has been created by the new owners. I want to fence off our property, including the portions of the driveway that are defined as ours. Can I do that? Can someone who varied the use (operate as a camp verses residential) from the original intent be denied access to the driveway portion that we own?
Ouch, Tom, I can only imagine that this would make things uncomfortable. You might be able to put up gates… but I would strongly suggest you get legal advice before you do that. Also, check with the local municipal offices to find out about land use and restrictions for the campground.
we have waterfront property on the Bruce peninsula- lake huron. Our next door neighbours are renting their cottage out full time in the summer months. The neighbours and since last summer now the weekly different renters constantly spend the day in front of our waterfront lot - with their cooler, chairs and have put their boat on top of our canoe. We have a nicer beach. We both own 100 ft. I have been asking the neighbours to use their own waterfront and to educate their renters on repsect for cottage owners. The cottage owner has told me that the renters can spend the day on my waterfront or any waterfront on our bay if they chose. Somehow I have lost the rights to my own property to strangers. I do not have a shore allowance across the front of my property - confirmed at the registry office. What can I do ? - post NO PARKING SIGNS - i know a person can walk along the shoreline but can they sit and spend the day if I ask them to leave?
Wow. I would think that you could post no trespassing signs, or put up a temporary fence of some kind… even a post with ropes. Naturally, I would suggest you speak to your lawyer.
I own waterfront property in Victoria Harbour, ON. I had a survey done of the property and at the time of the survey it was dry land. Over the past few years the water levels in Georgian Bay have risen to the point where approx 100ft of my property from the stakes in now under approx 1 ft of water. To I still own the property under the water and can I put a retaining wall up to re-claim the lost property? Also the people across the street are forever parking their boats in front of my property to the point where I have between 4-5 boats sitting in front of my home. Do I have any Riparian Rights to have them remove their boats to another location so I can enjoy the view of the water instead of their boats.
Hi Rick, Many people have their property lines now under water and in essence, you own the land but not the water. If they’re parking their boats, one might assume they’ve got some kind of anchor attached to your property and you might have a claim. Check with your lawyer.
One of the 22 members of a Home Owner’s Assoc. with jointly held Deeded Beach Access has decided they are in control of everything, and even though there is no Board, she has decided she is the President, and can make decisions unilaterally.
She wants to prohibit my deeded access to the beach, and will change the locks or do anything to stop me, because I have opted out of paying dues. She has harassed & harangued all the members & set a deadline before year end.
Can she deny access to deeded/titled property that is part of the deed to my house? She was asked to maintain the books, but was never voted in or anything. Thanks!
Time to look at the by-laws for the Home Association. This may require some research because many of these groups were set up very casually. Check with your local municipality. Look at your deed to make sure the access to the beach was properly recorded. It sounds like the property owners in the area need to seek legal counsel.
Our intention is to buy a cottage in Haliburton. This deal will be a private deal, without involvement of a real estate agent. The seller is in the process of having his lawyer do a title search on the cottage, and has told us that the hold up is waiting for ‘paperwork’ from the Ministry of Natural Resources. Our lending institution is getting impatient with us as they are wanting an approximate date of when this cottage will be sold to us. Can you provide some reasons as to why the MNR might need to be involved in the sale of a cottage? Thanks in advance
Richard, Have you asked the Sellers this question? Perhaps the MNR has some claim on the property and I would think it’s best for you to have your lawyer do the searches on the property. Ask to have the complete bundle of rights, including mineral, surface, mining, timber etc. investigated. The lawyer could also check for liens or work orders that the MNR might have attached for some kind of breach of regulations.
We have a private road that we all pay 200 road maintenance fees. One of the people in our block of land that hads deeded access to the lake refuses to pay road fees because they have a driveway on another road. They also have a culvert & a driveway on our road and use it for boat trailers, path etc. They recently purchased another lot that would be on our road again are saying nope not going to pay for that property either. They have put 2 large docks on the lake & BBQ, tables etc quite messy any suggestions? Do they have to pay the road fees? Are they able to take over a large part of the deeded access?
Unfortunately, this isn’t the first complaint that I’ve heard about difficulties collecting for privately maintained roads. Unfortunately, many of these communities were not set up properly when developed. Often there’s no rules against putting temporary structures on a deeded access. You may want to talk to a lawyer about this. Find out if there are any real regulations and check into formalizing the community arrangements.
How does “deeded beach access” work?
I am in an area on lake simcoe with a gated beach for association members only. Do all the houses in the area HAVE to pay fees to maintain the property. What if some members don’t pay for various reasons?
Hi M… many of the developments on Simcoe were set up very loosely in the 40’s and 50’s… and there may not be anything legally regulating the community or community association. You need to ask for details on the Association… find out when it was set up, how it was set up and get copies of their articles of incorporation and rules and regulations. If they are set up as a not-for-profit, they will have by-laws. This may require some digging because many of these associations have changed hands over time.
Hi, I own a cottage in NWO on someone else’s land that I inherited from my parents. The cottage was built in 1952 with a handshake and $15 a year compensation by my grandfather with the father of the present owner. There was never a written lease and I am unsure if the property the cabin is built on was registered land at that time. When the son of the first owner took over the land the rent increased, and kept increasing, until last year when we said we felt it was excessive. He relented and then served us written notice (not from a lawyer) that he wants us to remove our improvements from his land in that he has other plans for it. I don’t believe our cottage is moveable, and if moveable, the road is overgrown with trees and unless many come down, it would be impossible. Do we have squatter’s rights? Do we have a 99 year lease based on the $15 and a hand shake?
Cindy… take your letter to a lawyer… this sounds messy. Squatters rights may not apply since you have been paying “rent” and I haven’t heard of a 99 year lease based on a handshake.
We own a house facing the Talbot River in Beaverton Ont. There is a Ministry right of way in front of us that of course is owned by the ministry. We want to put the house up for sale. Can we list it as being water front? Thanks
Hi Marlene… it’s unusual to hear that the ministry has a right of way… do you mean shore allowance? We have seen cases where there is an unopened (or unowned) shore allowance… and the property still is listed as “waterfront".
Our house faces the water at lock 38. the real estate claims we can not list it as waterfront because the front cannot be used to swim or launch a boat. Thank-you Marlene
Hi Marlene… it could be a local regulation. Be sure to include waterfront views in the advertising!
I bought a small cottage to live in on a lake in Ontario, maintenance of the access road was by donation only when I first came in 1999 now I received a letter saying the fee has gone up to 250 per year and I am obligated legally to pay this…my question is am I legally obligated to pay this and how can they switch from donation to legal obligation so quickly.
Time to call a lawyer Bev… find out how the ownership of the road has been registered. You may find that it is a road not assumed by the township and that the road was never really registered to anyone in particular. Your lawyer will advise you how to proceed.
B….While there may not be any legal obligation to pay the road fees, if you don’t contribute to an otherwise unmaintained road, you may not have a road to access your property any more. Unfortunately, roads need maintenance… and obviously the “donation” thing has not been sufficient. This is, unfortunately, a fairly common issue when lots have been subdivided and sold without bringing the road up to municipal standards and therefore, the road is not maintained by the local authorities. In this case, somebody has to take care of the road.
You can check with the local municipal government to find out who, if anyone, owns the road… and what is required to bring it up to up to standard… but you’re likely to find that it is much more than the fee that has been requested.
Marlene, There may be a local real estate board by-law that prohibits listing the property as “waterfront". If you know the name of the local association, you can check with them to see if this is the case.
I own a waterfront cottage adjacent to a municipally owned road allowance. The municipality is clear that it is not an easement or a right of way for back property owners. Property owners at the back lots use the road allowance to access the water but it is not part of their deeds. They have also built docks on finger like land that was the result of dredging and abuts the road allowance. They have built all their docks on my side of the finger like land and their boats are docked in front of my cottage. Do I have any rights? The municipality does not want to assume responsibility for the finger like land structure or the removal of the docks. The MNRF do not want to deal with the docks. The owners of the docks have built on public land (crown land) without permission and it significantly affects my enjoyment of my waterfront property.
Hi EJ… I have found the municipalities all deal with these things differently. The Ministry is usually more concerned about the design of docks and whether or not they impede the natural habitat… in some cases, they feel it actually helps the habitat… go figure!
I have a question. I think that Jackson point is belongs to Georgina municipality. Many people complained of that problem: local residents installed sign “Private” on the beach and not allow to relax here. On my request show me a paper of ownership they answer - we don’t have to. On my request please call police (because I do not believe them) they did not do it. In my opinion, even if it is private you have the right to pass because it is located on the beach. And I do not see houses close to this beach, they are located 100 feet apart. Please send me your answer.
Thank you very much.
Many countries have the law: even if it is a private property, on the beach (lake, river, sea, or ocean) you have right to pass over and even to stay and relax here, I am not sure but,probably, 20-30 feet from the edge of the water line. How to find that these people are lying? Is it an offense to put sign “Private” on the land that is not belongs to you? Thank you.
P.S. It is located on the intersection Lake Dr. East and Brule Lakeway, far from the houses.
Hi Nikolai, This situation calls for visit to the local municipal offices. They should tell you who owns the property in question. It may well be privately owned and undeveloped- in which case, you are not permitted to trespass. The municipality will tell you if it’s crown land and if you are allowed to use it.
I have deeded access to our local lake along with a number of other home owners. They have a formed association that collects fees for these lands (they say it is to pay property tax so the city doesn’t regain the land) I have stated many of times to them that I do not want to be part of this and have no value in using the land in question. They have insisted on me paying dues to the point that now they are taking me to collections to get it. I have never signed any agreement saying I would be part of this. What are my rights? Can they force me into paying these fees? I’m not the only homeowner in this situation and we want them to stop and leave us alone. Any thoughts? Thanks!
Brad, if it’s deeded to you, you are part of this. Talk to your lawyer to see if you can remove the right-of-way. You may want to hold on to it though, when it comes time to sell the property it may have value to prospective buyers.
It is best practice for me to tell you to speak to a lawyer about this. That said, I think you should stop into your local municipal offices and find out who actually owns the property over which you enjoy deeded access.
Check your deed to see how this access is worded. If it’s deeded access, someone has to own the property you’re entitled to cross.
There are a lot of subdivisions that were laid out in the 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s that had very loose arrangements and they included shared ownership in an access lot to the waterfront- in some cases, they never properly registered ownership of the roads or the path to the waterfront.
A lawyer could advise you, but you may get the answers you need, from municipal authorities.
I got this question via email: I was wondering if you could steer me in the right direction. There are 16 houses that have the same deeded access as we do in Omemee, Does one home owner have the right to put up a 24hr video surveillance without the permission of all other home owners?
I suggest you take a look at this site: https://www.ipc.on.ca/images/resources/video-e.pdf
I am in the middle of a Separation/Divorce, and have joint ownership with my ex on 100 acres. He has gotten it logged out, and what I am trying to find out is Shouldn’t the logging company have both of our signatures to say they can logged it out? I live in Ontario, and would greatly appreciate any help on this that is possible. Thanks!
Hi There… Call your lawyer. The logger should have been notified.
here is the situation: There is a 200 acre Muskoka package, with over 2000ft of shore line. The property is currently in a trust and none of the beneficiaries will be able to pay the capital gains tax upon dispersement. I don’t know what the SRA purchase would be, but I assume it would be fairly cost prohibitive as well. Is there such a thing as a legal precedent that would allow a property owner to sever a parcel/parcels of their property without having to purchase the road allowance? It’s been owned by the same family for over 100 years, and the cottage has been located on the SRA for the whole time. (It was the 1st cottage on the lake) Perhaps there is a ’squatters rights’ / grandfather clause where the SRA is defaulted from the crown? Getting desperate for hope!
Peter: This would be a local regulation by the sounds of it. You need to check with your lawyer.
My father in law allowed a brother in law to build a camp on his lot. He has since passed and the land was sold to his 2 sons but the uncle is still there. Can he claim squatters rights. Thanks
Hi Susan, was there anything in writing?
If he has enjoyed at least 10 years of uninterrupted use, he likely has a claim.
This is something you need to discuss with a lawyer.
re: logging without permission:
I gave the writer the following advice:
I’d call the logger right away and advise them to cease and desist… and explain that you own the property. Your ex may not have told them.
You probably need legal assistance- You should find out the name of the logger and contact your lawyer with that information immediately.
Re: 200 Acre Muskoka Property on SRA
I replied privately to the writer with:
I must emphasize that I am not a legal or accounting expert and I am not conversant with regulations in the municipality in which the property is located. I can give you the insight of my experience and it is not uncommon to find a cottage or rural property that is built outside of the appropriate property lines, particularly on the Shore Road Allowance. Nor is it unusual to find that inheritance of property can be daunting and complicated.
Fabian and I recently represented buyers of an estate cottage and, during the due diligence process of their purchase it came to light that a storage building had been erected on the Shore Road Allowance, about 40 years prior. The municipality could find no permit for the structure and demanded that it be removed. While the lawyers for both parties said that, although it would take some time, they could fight this demand on the basis of “grandfathering", however, neither party was interested in delaying the closing- so the structure was removed prior to completion of the transaction.
Your situation is complicated by the fact that it is a residence and not simply a storage shed.
Here are my thoughts:
1/ I strongly recommend that you speak to your lawyer, an accountant and a qualified mortgage specialist before making any decisions. In many cases, this type of encroachment can be satisfied by applying for a “minor variance". You need to verify all of the tax implications.
2/ Keep in mind that little concern was given to the proximity of a dwelling to a waterway 100 years ago because most didn’t have indoor plumbing, however, over the years most of these properties have been retrofitted to include toilets. Some of these properties obtained appropriate permits but some did not. The quality and location of septic tanks and beds varied, depending on the rules in force at the time of installation and whether or not the property owner followed code. This is believed to have had an adverse affect on water quality and many localities have been inspecting systems and demanding improvements. I mention this because it could be a stumbling block.
3/ The property has a story and its history may exempt it from some regulations but this would require investigation with the relevant authorities.
I hope this is of some help to you.
I recently inherited about 200 acres of property in an unorganized township in Northern Ontario. The property is landlocked. On one side it borders crown land, and an old logging road is about 200 meters away from the property. Is it possible to put a trail or road over the crown land to link up with the old lagging road?
James: I would urge you not to do anything on the crown land without express permission. Visit your local municipal authorities and the Ministry of Natural Resources… you need permission to cut down trees and clear any path… doing so without permission can get you into serious hot water. Jody
I bought a 50 year old cottage which was built beside the property line. I can’t walk on the one side of the cottage without being on my neighbour’s property. Do I have any squatters rights which would allow me to plant some trees on his side of the line for more privacy.
Tony: I don’t think that “squatters rights” apply here. You’d be best to approach your neighbour and ask permission to plant.
hi i have 85 acers of land in northern ontario left to me be my dad , original homestead says mineral rights included . Whay exactly does this mean
In Canada, surface rights and mineral rights came with the purchase of land until sometime in the early 1900s, depending on the area. About 90% of the mineral rights on Canada’s land is owned by the government. The government will lease mineral rights to individuals or companies and in some provinces there are specific conditions upon the renewal of mining leases (for example, the property must be the site of an active mine).
Under the Mining Act, licensed prospectors may enter a private property that is deemed “open” for mining claim staking. There is no notification required. Once a claim is staked, and before a mining claim holder performs any work, they must provide 1 days written notice. (I’ve heard that sticking a note in the door is sufficient). If the mining exploration causes damages, the mineral rights holder is to compensate the surface rights holder.
Basically what this means is that in your situation, your property still retains the mineral rights from way back when and nobody can stake a mining claim and explore for minerals without your agreement. Where mineral rights are privately owned, they can be sold independently of surface rights, so that surface and mineral rights on the same property can be held by different owners.
If a realtor describes a shoreline as “sandy and rocky” when the shoreline isn’t visible (ie during winter months), and the shoreline turns out to be weedy and mushy after it’s thawed, is there any recourse regarding a misrepresentation?
You asked: If a realtor describes a shoreline as “sandy and rocky” when the shoreline isn’t visible (ie during winter months), and the shoreline turns out to be weedy and mushy after it’s thawed, is there any recourse regarding a misrepresentation?
During the winter, it is impossible to know what a shoreline is like and people often rely upon information given by the Sellers. A Realtor who has been practicing for a many years gets to know the shorelines, fairly well. In cases where we are uncertain, Fabian and I have been known to auger a hole and stir up the bottom with a stick… while this isn’t 100%, it does help.
In your situation, you may have some recourse… but it is a matter for your lawyer. If you have anything in writing, for instance the original listing for the property or a copy of a newspaper ad that indicates a sandy/rocky shoreline that would help and it would be something that your lawyer would likely want to have a look at.
Do you know if you can sell deeded access on your property to another individual so they can access their land (through your property) which is land locked
As far as we know, there is nothing to stop you from selling a deeded access across your property to an adjacent property owner… just remember, you will want to situate the access in such as way as to do as little to your own property as it is seen as a negative attribute when and if you go to sell your property. You should consult a lawyer and check the lawyer will check to make sure you can do it and also, protect your interest. Often, if the other owner has approached you, they will pay your legal fees, as well. Hope that helps!
My wife and I are just finishing up on purchasing 142.5 acres of unorganized property in northern Ontario along Highway 65 which has a house and a couple out buildings. We were under the understanding that we would be able to sever some property as our land borders a side road which has 3 lots already there. The previous owner said she had looked into it around 5+ years ago and told us it could be done and a round about cost. We have contacted the municipal office and are told we cannot severe any land as they do not want any more permanent dwellings being raised. We were told they will not approve a land severance based on that. Is there anyone we can contact for assistance besides going to the local municipal office, we do not have plans for the area between the two properties there and could benefit from the sale. Any advice or contacts would appreciated.
I received your comment on my blog, this morning and I am sorry that you have encountered issues with your recent real estate transaction. I am not an expert in these matters by any means, however, your situation is a reminder that prospective Buyers need to talk to the local municipal authorities before they purchase property that they intend to make changes to.
I suggest that your next move would be to contact the “Ontario Municipal Board” also known as the “OMB", through which you can file an appeal of the local municipal decision. You can find information about the OMB online.
This can be a time consuming process and you are not guaranteed a favourable decision.
You didn’t mention whether you purchased the property privately or through a Realtor and I have no idea how you drew up your Agreement of Purchase and Sale or what sort of clauses were included, so it is difficult to guess what other recourse you might have if the appeal fails. It does sound like you relied upon information provided by the Seller to make the decision to purchase and the information given has proven to be wrong. I would suggest that you contact your lawyer for an expert opinion. This also can be a time consuming endeavour, which will probably have costs associated, and you still may not resolve the matter favourably………..
I hope this information is of some help to you.
I bought some land in northern ontario, it is 60 acres on paper, but there is half of a lake within the property lines, approx 40 acres of lake, so only 20 acres land. My understanding is that I obviously dont own the lake, or part of it, or do I?. but im taxed on 60 acres, and 3000 ft of waterfront. Does anyone know how that all works?
Adrian: You should look into filing a tax appeal. Talk to you the local municipal authorities.
We have someone leaving a small tin boat on our shoreline/land. I have checked with the county and it is our property. I have left a note in the boat for them to remove it. If they don’t, can I have it removed like a car would be if it was parked on private property? Thanks to anyone who can shed some light on the process.
I would check with the local authorities. People can’t just leave their belongings on someone else’s property.
Keep in mind that if one was to try to take over land under old “squatting” laws that were nullified in the 50’s, the court would look at who is paying the taxes on the property and not just the deeds. If someone is squatting and the rightful owner is paying the taxes and say, for example, the squatter is allowed to continue, then the court would rule that the squatter would have to pay all the taxes back to when the squatting started. Squatters squatting on Crown Land (ions ago) had to register the land and pay for the fees attached with registering and the taxes. One aboriginal prepaid the taxes for almost 100 years even though the law said that it did not have to be paid. Anyone squatting on this said property will have to reimburse the person paying the taxes. The person paying the taxes and electrical bills is the rightful owner. On aboriginal reserves the FIRSTBORN WAS THE RIGHTFUL OWNER ALLOWING KIN TO LIVE WITHIN THE PROPERTY AND GUIDELINES. Thus, non aboriginals marrying into and divorcing an aboriginal can NOT claim neither squatter rights nor property as it did never belonged to the cousin of a cousin of a cousin. It also would fall under co-op rules only if co-op rules were first established.
Are seasonal house boats permitted at the waterfront on a private property without municipal approval?
You should check with the local municipality to find out their regulations.
I own a 4 acre piece of land on the Muskoka river. Flooding rights have been deeded to the electrical authority ( along time ago) which cover about 1.5 acres of my land. This is good as it makes a quite nice “private” bay on my property. The problem is that the local municipality thinks that the flooded land is no longer my property. Question: does the granting of flooding rights still leave me with the right to the land under the flooded areas, and does the Navigable waters act apply to the flooded land as is was not navigable (no water present) when the land was originally granted by the crown.
I’m sorry to take so long responding to you. This one has me stymied… I think you need a lawyer’s opinion on this matter.
Best of luck,
We own a waterfront property beside a deeded access park for all residents. There are community docks there that are rented annually with assigned spaces for the season. The deeded access area is also one of the parks in our neighbourhood where the community events take place. We pay an annual association fee that states that part of the fee goes into the maintenance of the parks, docks etc. The deeded access is in a bay and the lake weeds collect over the season and start backing up into our shoreline space. We do our best to remove all that is in front of our space and part of what is beside us, but never see any signs that any have been removed for the deeded shoreline. My question is - legally does the association have the obligation to maintain the shoreline as well? They post notes asking people to volunteer but… they pay for someone to cut the grass and have a porta potty seasonally etc…Is there any action that we could take to try to get them to deal with this? Is the board of directors obligated to do this? There is also someone that is assigned parks and docks on the board. It seems that our requests are not being heard.
Unfortunately, your question is not easily answered. It is complicated by a number of factors. First off, I’m not familiar with your association. I’d suggest that you look into the association to see how they are set up. Many of these associations are very loosely set up, but they should have by-laws and regulations which would clarify their responsibilities.
I am trying to understand your concerns about the weeds. To the best of my knowledge and belief, you are not supposed to alter the shoreline or perform any work in a waterway without the permission of the relevant authorities- such as the Ministry of Natural Resources and The Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the local Conservation Authorities.
I hope this is of some help to you.
I own property with a beautiful sandy shoreline. Boaters have found my location and on any day up to 15 can be found in front of my lot.
They bring tubes, seados and all their toys. They set up lawn chairs in the water in front of my lot - not on the shore. They eat, drink, …. for up to 6 hours - there is no washroom available???
I cannot get out to swim without trying to find a space; people cannot get in to my shore to visit (if coming by boat).
What can I do?
Let me start by saying that I’m not an expert on these matters and always suggest that you approach the appropriate authorities- such as a lawyer, the municipality, the Ministry of Natural Resource, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries- perhaps even the OPP. If the OPP are on that waterway, they could make stops to check on these folks because it does sound like a bit of a party.
Is your property obviously privately owned? I have heard of cases where word-of-mouth spreads and people mistakenly believe that they are hanging around near crown land or publically owned property. This happens a lot when there are “diving rocks". If you haven’t got signs posted saying “Private Property” you may want to put some up.
I have heard of people getting watch dogs to patrol their shoreline. They bark constantly at people in the water and are such an annoyance that they shift away. Other people have played loud, annoying music to achieve the same affect. Some have created a system that loops the same song, continuously. I had someone suggest that you post “Unsafe Beach” signs, “Warning: Leeches", “Warning: unsafe levels of bacteria” or “Biker Clubhouse” signs. I am not certain that any of these suggestions are 100% legal, which is why I would suggest that you seek expert advice from the appropriate authorities.
I hope this information is of some help.
I bought a cottage in french river in 2011 and the shoreline has been getting overgrown by weeds. It is extremely silty to the point that you sink to your knees in minutes. Can I do anything to clean it up or is altering all shorelines illegal?
Hi there…. you had best contact the municipality, the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries to ask their advice on this matter.
Hi! We own over 2000 feet of frontage on a small lake . Our property consists of over 4 acres and has a deeded access at the back that follows the full length of our property. Do we require OMB approval to severe into two lots or is this solely at the discretion of our Municiple government? Thanks
You have to have the approvals… it sounds like your property may be wide and narrow which may be an issue to ensure set backs for septic systems, etc. You should start the process with the municipal authorities. It is not a speedy process.
We live on a road, partially deeded. There are seven of us year round, 6 who are seasonal. Trying to keep this road maintained so it is accessable to emergency vehicles, year round, is quite an endeavor. The owner of the road needs to be contacted each time we want maintenance work done, he does not feel he needs to contribute toward this and insists on being contacted when road work needs done. All the individuals who live here have lots of company, and since we live on a lake, you never know when an emergency may occur.
My question is, who is legally responsible for keeping the road up to emergency standards?
This is a tricky but common issue and it is difficult to answer, especially without seeing how the road is “partially deeded". Unfortunately, most of these private roads weren’t designed for year round use. Un-assumed roads often get most abuse October/November and then in March/April & early May. These are times when seasonal residents are less likely to be visiting their property, so the year round residents are generally the ones who have to handle maintenance.
Many residents on roads like yours have attempted to get their roads assumed by the township but the cost to bring the road up to standard is prohibitive.
I’m not sure if you have a “road committee” organized. This is something that I would highly recommend. This way you could set up maintenance plans and monitor costs. I don’t believe that you could force the seasonal people to pay, but if you are reasonable you might get them to pitch in a fraction of the costs for maintenance.
I’m not sure why the “owner” of the road needs to be notified if there is work, except that it may be due to liability issues. A committee could set up parameters with the road owner so that minor work might be conducted without the rigmarole of having to conduct the owner, leaving formal permissions for something more intensive like tree removal etc.
I hope this information is of help to you.
We are considering purchasing a cottage in Haliburton area (Dysart et al) which is built very close to the water on SRA that is not owned. Could the municipality demand that this cottage be removed? (It was probably built in the 50’s or 60’s) If I purchased the SRA, what implications would this have? The setback is probably only 20-30 ft from the water and there is a road behind the cottage with the bulk of the land being behind the road.
In answer to your question about a cottage built close to the un-owned shore allowance. This is quite a common occurrence, especially with cottages built in 50s & 60s. Some people feel more comfortable when they own the shore allowance, however, it isn’t really necessary because you have the right to use and enjoy it, regardless. In many cases, the shore allowance pertains to a high water mark which often means the shore allowance is somewhere out in front, under water now.
Most municipalities “grandfather” older builds and do not disrupt the location of the cottages, even when minimum set backs have changed. If this occurs, you may not be permitted to add onto the existing cottage or tear it down and rebuild… you would likely have to work with the existing footprint.
I hope this answer is of some help.
I own a lot in Stouffville that is landlocked but it has a road provision. What should I do to have the road opened to access my land for future building?
Thank you in advance.
I think you are talking about an unopened road allowance. You would have to speak to the local municipality about that.
Hi, was hoping if you could answer a few questions on timber rights. I’d like to buy vacant land for a camp/cabin. If timber rights are reserved…
-should I find out who has the rights reserved?
-can they harvest without my consent?
-is being reserved by the crown better for me than if by someone else?
-am I allowed to cut trees to clear a campsite or driveway?
I plan on buying in an unincorporated township if that matters.
A lawyer and the MNR will help you find out who has the timber rights. They will also guide you to understand the specifics- for instance sometimes the crown has reserved just the pines. If any of the timber rights are owned by the crown you will need the MNR’s permission to harvest trees. If the timber rights aren’t included with your purchase, the right’s holder can come and cut. It really is of no consequence that the township is unincorporated because timber rights are not overseen at the municipal level.
I would suggest you visit the MNR and inquire about the property, it’s also important to have your lawyer conduct a search to find out what rights are included. Remember it’s not just timber rights that can be an issue… there are mineral and mining rights, among others, that can also be an inconvenience.
Jody, we just purchased a parcel of land that has a small river running through it. I would like to build a small bridge over the river. Am I able to do this so long as I do not disturb the flow of the river? Do I need riprarian rights to do this?
There can be many variables here… quite often you are permitted, as long as you don’t mess with the river bottom or the flow. A quick call to the building inspector at the local township will help you discern local regulations.
We own a property on an inland lake in Northern Ontario. According to a very old survey done in the 50’s and the MPAC maps it looks like we are the only ones on our side of the lake that doesn’t own to the shore. Our house (previously a cottage) was built in the early 70’s and is only set back about 30 feet from the shore. Since we apparently don’t own right to the water do we still have to pay waterfront property taxes like our waterfront owning neighbours?? Just curious.
Un-owned or Un-opened shorelines are very common. Some people feel better if they purchase the shore allowance, but that is a matter of personal preference.
Shore allowances were created from the high water mark. In some areas, the shore allowance is now underwater. 30′ is pretty close to the shore, even for the 70’s- which makes me wonder if this is the case on your lake. So you might own right to the water… without getting a survey done, you won’t really know. Your home/cottage may or may not encroach on the shore-allowance. If it does, most people considered it compliant, being “grandfathered-in".
Shore allowances don’t change the fact that your property is waterfront. While you don’t actually own it, it isn’t large enough for anyone to build anything on… so it is yours to enjoy and to maintain.
Shore allowances were created to allow mariners, in trouble, to land. This seldom occurs on inland lakes and is, therefore, nothing to worry about.
I hope this is of some help.
Jody, I am wondering about a situation where you have a large acreage property and own the timber rights only but not the mineral rights. I was told that owning the timber rights on the property, when the mineral rights are reserved, is a very large plus for the property owner in the event a Mining Company, Prospector or other individual own the mineral rights and want to go on the property and do exploration work. Can you share your thoughts on this situation? Thanks